Oral Contraceptives - Benefits
Based on solid evidence, oral contraceptive use is associated with a decreased risk of developing ovarian cancer..Oral Contraceptives - Harms
Based on solid evidence, combined current use of estrogen/progestogen oral contraceptive use is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Oral contraceptives are not associated with a long-term increased risk of breast cancer but may be associated with a short-term increased risk while a woman is taking oral contraceptives. The risk of breast cancer declines with time since last use.Prophylactic Oophorectomy - Benefits
Based on solid evidence, prophylactic bilateral oophorectomy (and salpingectomy) is associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer. Peritoneal carcinomatosis has been reported following prophylactic removal of the ovaries. Prophylactic oophorectomy, along with salpingo-oophorectomy, is generally reserved for women at high risk of developing ovarian cancer, such as women who have a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.Prophylactic Oophorectomy - Harms
Based on solid evidence, prophylactic oophorectomy among women who are still menstruating at the time of surgery is associated with premature menopause and its associated effects of loss of fertility, vasomotor and urogenital symptoms, decline in sexual interest, and long-term effects on bone health and cardiovascular disease risk.